Diploma In Pharmacy Physiology Examination Paper Year One Semester One (Complete Exam With Answers)

Section One (MCQs)

  1. The plasma membrane is effective in isolating the cytoplasm from the extra cellular fluid primarily because;
    a) Peripheral proteins attached to the inner or outer membrane surface
    b) Integral proteins form channels that let water pass in and out of the cell
    c) The lipid “tails” in the phospholipid’s bilayer form a sheet that repels water
    d) The rigid composition of the plasma membrane forms a waterproof barrier
  2. Of all the passive processes, the only one that does not require concentration gradient is;
    a) Diffusion
    b) Osmosis
    c) Bulk filtration
    d) Facilitated diffusion
  3. A transport or carrier protein;
    a) Spans the plasma membrane completely and is thus a transmembrane protein
    b) Has an internal hydrophobic region and hydrophilic regions at both ends
    c) May not use energy from ATP to help a particular substance cross the plasma lemma
    d) All of the above
  4. Which of the following processes can only occur in a living cell?
    a) Diffusion
    b) Osmosis
    c) Bulk filtration
    d) Endocytosis
  5. A higher concentration of sodium ions in extra cellular fluid versus cytosol is most likely maintained by;
    a) Blocking any passage of sodium through the plasma membrane
    b) Actively transporting sodium ions out of the cell
    c) Overcrowding the cytosol with potassium ions
    d) None of the above
  6. Which of the following lists only non-membrane-bound organelles?
    a) Microvilli, ribosomes, centrioles, mitochondria, cytoskeleton
    b) Cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, flagellum, ribosomes
    c) Microvilli, cytoskeleton, cilia, lysosomes, nucleus, ribosomes
    d) Cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum, centrioles, nucleus, cilia, ribosomes
  7. Which of the following lists only membrane-bound organelles?
    a) Microtubules, nucleus, lysosomes, ribosomes, mitochondria, cilia
    b) Lysosomes, ribosomes, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus
    c) Endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes
    d) Mitochondria, cilia, centrioles, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes
    e) Mitochondria, cilia, centrioles, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus
  8. Which of the following organelles occurs in the fewest types of human cells?
    a) Nucleus
    b) Microtubule
    c) Flagellum
    d) Rough ER
  9. The nucleus (and more specifically, the genes it contains) most directly controls all of the cell’s activities by;
    a) Controlling cell division
    b) Regulating protein synthesis
    c) Synthesizing DNA and RNA
    d) Coordinating intracellular communication
  10. Of the following, which organelle participates most directly in mitosis?
    a) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    b) Ribosome
    c) Centriole
    d) Nucleolus
  11. Although often described as somatic cell division, __ is actually division of the nucleus,
    a) Meiosis
    b) Mitosis
    c) Cytokinesis
    d) Interphase
  12. Mitosis plays a role in all of the following processes except;
    a) Tissue growth and repair
    b) Replacement of old or dying cells
    c) Sex cell production
    d) Embryo formation
  13. During which stages of mitosis does a typical cell contain twice its normal number of chromosomes?
    (1) Prophase (2) metaphase (3) anaphase (4) telophase
    a) 1 and 2
    b) 2 and 4
    c) 3 and 4
    d) All of the above
  14. Which of the following organelles might function during or even after apoptosis of the cell that contains them?
    a) Centrioles
    b) Golgi apparatus
    c) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    d) Lysosomes
  15. To destroy bacteria in the interstitial fluid, leukocytes would most likely employ the processes of;
    a) Receptor-mediated endocytosis
    b) Pinocytosis
    c) Bulk filtration
    d) Phagocytosis
  16. Which of the following events do NOT occur in prophase of mitosis?
    a) DNA condenses to form chromosomes
    b) Nuclear membrane breaks down
    c) Nucleolus breaks down
    d) Chromosomes are replicated
    e) Mitotic spindle begins to form
  17. Which of the following statements about microtubules during anaphase is TRUE?
    a) Those attached to chromosomes elongate, while those that are unattached shorten
    b) Those attached to chromosomes shorten, while those that are unattached elongate
    c) Both attached and unattached microtubules shorten
    d) Both attached and unattached microtubules elongate
    e) Both attached and unattached microtubules elongate at first and then shorten
  18. ______ is an example of cells that are specialize for storage.
    a) Epithelial cells
    b) Fibroblast cells
    c) Adipocytes
    d) Oocytes
  19. Which of the following is not true of the plasma membrane?
    a) Contains receptors for communication
    b) Forms intercellular connections
    c) Is a rigid sheet of molecules with little flexibility
    d) Regulates material movement into and out of the cell
  20. Extra cellular fluid is also called;
    a) Cytosol
    b) Intracellular fluid
    c) Interstitial fluid
    d) Cytoplasmic matrix
  21. Plasma membranes contain all of the following except;
    a) Phospholipids
    b) Peripheral steroids
    c) Intergral proteins
    d) Glycolipids
  22. All processes of moving materials across the plasma membrane are classified as either;
    a) Diffusion or osmosis
    b) Passive or active transport
    c) Phagocytosis or pinocytosis
    d) Endocytosis or exocytosis
  23. Processes that move molecules passively across the cell membrane include;
    a) Diffusion
    b) Bulk filtration
    c) Osmosis
    d) All of the above
  24. Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to move;
    a) From lower to higher concentration
    b) Down their concentration gradient
    c) Into a cell by endocytosis
    d) Out of a cell by exocytosis
  25. Which of the following are types of endocytosis?
    a) Facilitated diffusion and bulk filtration
    b) Osmosis and active transport
    c) Pinocytosis and phagocytosis
    d) None of the above
  26. A pocket formed by an inward folding of a membrane is called;
    a) An evagination
    b) An invagination
    c) A secretory vesicle
    d) A vacuole
  27. Which organelles synthesize proteins?
    a) Ribosomes
    b) Nucleoli
    c) Centrioles
    d) All of the above
  28. Digestion and self-destruction are functions of which organelles?
    a) Nucleus
    b) Mitochondria
    c) Lysosome
    d) Peroxisome
  29. Most of a cell’s ATP is synthesized by membrane-bound organelles called;
    a) Ribosomes
    b) Mitochondria
    c) Lysosomes
    d) Nucleoli
  30. The rough endoplasmic reticulum functions in;
    a) Transport, respiration, and synthesis
    b) Contraction, transport, and diffusion
    c) Synthesis, storage, and transport
    d) Storage, transport, and digestion
  31. Which organ modifies, packages, and sorts proteins for secretion or use within the cell?
    a) Golgi apparatus
    b) Lysosomes
    c) Endoplasmic reticulum
    d) Nucleus
  32. The most organized level of genetic material, visible with a light microscope only during cell division, is the;
    a) Histone
    b) Chromatin
    c) Chromosome
    d) Nucleosome
  33. Nucleoli make which of the following?
    a) Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum
    b) Ribosomal RNA and proteins
    c) Histones and DNA
    d) All of the above
  34. Which phase of a somatic cell’s life cycle is the longest?
    a) Prophase
    b) Anaphase
    c) Metaphase
    d) Interphase
  35. The correct sequence of the stages of mitosis is;
    a) Metaphase, anaphase, telophase, prophase
    b) Prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase
    c) Telophase, metaphase, anaphase, prophase
    d) Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
  36. During which stage of mitosis does chromatin coil into chromosomes?
    a) Metaphase
    b) Telophase
    c) Prophase
    d) Anaphase
  37. _ occurs when the chromosomes line up at the equatorial plate of the cell.
    a) Metaphase
    b) Telophase
    c) Prophase
    d) Anaphase
  38. Sister chromatids pull apart to form single-stranded chromosomes during;
    a) Metaphase
    b) Telophase
    c) Prophase
    d) Anaphase
  39. The completion of __ mark the end of cell division;
    a) Prophase
    b) Cytokinesis
    c) Interphase
    d) Anaphase
  40. The slightly expanded tips of telodendria are called;
    a) Synaptic knobs
    b) Synapses
    c) Axon terminals
    d) Axon collaterals

Section Two (Short Answer Questions)

1) a) State two ions found within the cell? (2 marks)
b) Distinguish between the electrolytes found in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF). (3marks)
2) a) Define the term resting membrane potential. (2 marks)
b) Briefly describe the genesis of resting membrane potential (3marks)
3) Define the following terms: (5 marks)
i. Mole
ii. Osmole
iii. Osmolarity
iv. Osmolality
v. Equivalent
4) 1) Define the term neurotransmitter. (1 mark)
2) State the receptor types associated with the following neurotransmitters: (5 marks)
a) Acetylcholine
b) Histamine
c) Dopamine
d) Epinephrine
e) GABA (gamma amino butyrate)
5) Distinguish the morphological features of the following muscle types: (5 marks)
A. Skeletal muscle
B. Smooth muscle
C. Cardiac muscle
6) State the 4 basic tissue types in the human body. (4 marks)
i. _
ii. _

iii. _
iv. _

7) State five functions of cell membrane proteins. (5 marks)
a) _
b) _

c) _
d) _

e) __
8) State the major functions of the following structures in a neuron: (5 marks)
A. Dendrites
B. Cell body
C. Axon
D. Terminal buttons
E. Myelin sheath

Section Three (Long Answer Questions)

(1) a) Outline the sequence of events that take place starting from the arrival of the impulse at the synaptic knob to the generation of an action potential at the post synaptic neuron. (10 marks)
b) Discuss excitation-contraction coupling (10 marks)
(2) Show with a labeled diagram the various phases of an action potential in cardiac muscle and describe the corresponding ionic changes (20 marks)
(3) Outline the organization of the nervous system
Discuss the cranial outflow of parasympathetic nervous system.
State the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the heart the gastrointestinal tract and skeletal muscle and receptors of the sympathetic transmitter in these organs.

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